The second level is the structure of curriculum i.e. At this level Schulman’s (1987) conceptualization of teacher’s knowledge provides the base of teacher education curriculum structure a teacher should possess subject content knowledge, general pedagogical knowledge, and the knowledge of educational contexts and goals; and should be able to use this knowledge creatively to deal with ever changing classroom situations.
If we analyse teacher education systems in different countries from this perspective we will find majority of teacher education reform efforts centred on reforming the knowledge base of teachers, and similarities can be observed in teacher education curriculum across various societies.
India has made concentrated efforts to modify and modernize teacher education curricula to suit the requirements of contemporary educational needs of the society and instill greater professionalism and commitment in practicing teachers through pre-service and continuous in-service teacher education programmes.
The National Policy of Education (NPE, 1986) reflects this commitment by considering pre-service and in-service teacher education as a continuous process and two ends of a continuum.
They are accepted as the backbone of education system.
The National Professional Standards for Teachers (the Standards) reflect and build on national and international evidence that a teacher’s effectiveness has a powerful impact on students, with broad consensus that teacher quality is the single most important in-school which influencing student achievement.
At the systemic level, the positioning of teacher education determines its nature.