This dictionary tries to be a dependable guide to the reader in this respect too, by giving him all the necessary information about the origin, for- mation and sense development of any word that might interest him. The scientific value of most etymological dictionaries is much impaired by the circumstance that their authors are not familiar with the structure of the Semitic languages, a fact thrown into relief by the inconsistencies of the transliteration of Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic words, on the one hand, and by the lack of any etymological analysis of these words, on the other. In many other cases the etymology is not given either, but the origin of the respec- X tive word is referred to by such vague terms as 'of uncertain etymology', or 'probably of Orien- tal origin', etc., whereas their provenance is very well known. Bense, Dictionary of the Low Dutch element in the English Vocabulary. Carnoy, Albert, Dictionnaire etymologique de la mythologie greco-romaine, Louvam. My dictionary contains the ety- mology of several hundred such words. Berneker, E., Slavisches etymologisches Worterbuch, vol. Devic M Dictionnaire etymologique des mots francais derives de l'arabe, Pans, 1876; published also in Supplement to E. Halpenny, its editor, for their helpfulness and encouragement, which were important factors on the way leading to the publication of my work. VIII My grateful acknowledgements are also due to the whole staff of the University of Toronto Library for the facilities extended to me in the use of its books. There I learned that my Father, my wife, my only child Joseph and two of my three sisters had suffered martyrdom in Auschwitz. Paul Horvath (nee Elizabeth Klein) and her husband have survived.
After the liberation from the latter place by Amerian troops in 1945, 1 returned home to find only the ruins of what had once been the flourishing Jewish com- munity of Nov6 Zamky. WHO DIED A MARTYR OF HIS FAITH IN AUSCHWITZ IN 1944; ANDTOTHESACRED MEMORY OF MY WIFE AND OF MY ONLY CHILD JOSEPH (H AYYI M ISRAEL) WHO ALSO FELL VICTIMS TO NAZISM IN AUSCHWITZ IN 1944 Preface To know the origin of words is to know the cultural history of mankind. In infinite humility I bend the knee and bow before the Eternal Who gives power to the faint, and to him who has no might increases strength. On this occasion I would like to extend my affectionate feelings to two of my closest and dearest friends in Toronto, whom I love both as if they were brothers to me in the literal sense of this term : Mr. C., whose friendship and love I treasure as one of the greatest gifts bestowed upon me by Providence and whose zeal and encouragement have been an im- portant factor in my writing and completing this dictionary, and Mr.
Leo Bermann, whose sincere brotherly affection and friendly devotion have always been and continue to be a grati- fying source of spiritual joy to me, and who had a decisive role in the history of the publication of my dictionary. Marsh Jeanneret, president of the Toronto Uni- versity Press, and to Miss F. If we want to understand the history of an English word, we must compare this word with as many corre- spondences as possible.