Karsh quotes Nuri Said, longtime prime minister of Iraq and a prominent early champion of pan-Arabism: "Although Arabs are naturally attached to their native land, their nationalism is not confined by boundaries.
It is an aspiration to restore the great tolerant civilization of the early caliphate." Islam is a millenarian faith in which politics and religion are inextricably bound together.
Al-Kata'ib's Jumayyil argued that the notion that Arabism of certain intellectuals is "scientific" and free of "religious fanaticism," is nevertheless the expression of only a small minority, stating: "secularity is impossible for Arab nationalism; religion is the essence of this nationalism as a result of the teachings of its leaders and ideologues." In fact, according to the Kata'ib frame of reference, "the pan-Arab movement is first and foremost a pan- Islamic movement" and behind the Arab idea there exists the Islamic reality.
In Sudan, one can see extremism in the guise of racism merging with radicalism in ideology -- Arab nationalists have in one way or another always acknowledged the link with Islam.